Japanese American Internment
Should Freedom Be Sacrificed in the Name of National Security?

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Supporting Question 1- What were the reasons for and against Japanese exclusion and internment?

Web Resources

Japanese Internment in America (three-minute video clip):

Japanese-American Relocation article:

Lt. Gen. J. L. DeWitt, report on relocating Japanese Americans to Secretary of War Henry Stimson, Final Report: Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast 1942 (excerpt), June 5, 1943

Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. Cartoon by Rodger, “All Packed Up and Ready to Go,” originally published in the San Francisco News, March 6, 1942.

Editorial, ““Their Best Way to Show Loyalty,” originally published in the San Francisco News, March 6, 1942.

Public domain. Reprinted from the Untold Story: Internment of Japanese Americans in Hawai’i website, Japanese Cultural Center of Hawaii. http://hawaiiinternment.org/sites/default/files/%20JCCH_USHistory_TAB3.pdf. (link not working)

Public domain. Reprinted from Wes Injerd, “The Preservation of a People: A Look at the Evacuation and Relocation of the People of Japanese Ancestry in the United States during World War II.

Photo 1:Series: Central Photographic File of the War Relocation Authority, 1942 - 1945 Record Group 210: Records of the War Relocation Authority, 1941 - 1989  by Dorthea Lange

Photo 2: Dorothea Lange, photograph, Soldier and Mother in Strawberry Field, 1942. Public domain. Reproduced from the National Archives

Print Resources

Walter Lippmann, article from his syndicated column Today and Tomorrow, “The Fifth Column on the Coast” (excerpts), New York Tribune, February 12, 1942

Additional Resources

Japanese Cultural Center of Hawai’i, “Pearl Harbor and America’s Entry into World War II: A Documentary History,” The Untold Story: Internment of Japanese Americans in Hawai’i website.

Overview,” Camp Harmony Exhibit, University Libraries of the University of Washington website

Jerry D. Morelock, “Japanese-American Internment During World War II,” December 7, 2010, Armchair General magazine website
“Summary of Communication—January 4, 1942,” in Final Report: Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast, 1942, Headquarters Western Defense Command and Fourth Army, Office of the Commanding General, Presidio of San Francisco, California. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 1943. The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco website

Explorations: Japanese-American Internment,” Digital History website.

1942 Chronology,” The War Relocation Authority & the Incarceration of Japanese-Americans During WWII, Harry S. Truman Library and Museum.

Supporting Question 2- How did internment disrupt Japanese Americans’ lives?

Web Resources

Excerpted from Joe Nickell, Imprisoned in Minidoka: Grandmother’s Diary Memorializes Life as an Interned Japanese American Following Attack on Pearl Harbor.” The Missoulian. October 4, 2009.

Photo I am an American Public domain. Reproduced from the Library of Congress

Japanese American Relocation Digital

Ansel Adams's Photograhs of Japanese Americans Internment at Manzanar

Images of Japanese American Internment at Tule Lake Camp in Oregon

Additional Resources

Roger Shimomura Interview, Densh? Digital Archives. (Note: The link will bring you to the main page of the archives where you may log in as a guest to access the many segments of the Shimomura interview.)

Supporting Question 3- How did the 1944 Korematsu case illustrate division in the United States over internment policy?

Web Resources

Korematsu v. United States (No. 22)  From the Legal Information Institute Website
Argued: October 11, 12, 1944
Decided: December 18, 1944

Constitutional Convention, document describing the structure of the US government, United States Constitution (excerpts), 1787

Additional Resources

Fred T. Korematsu Institute curriculum materials. http://korematsuinstitute.org/fredkorematsuday/curriculum/.

The complete syllabus for Korematsu v. United States is available at the Legal Information Institute, http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/323/214, and Oyez, http://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1949/1944/1944_22.

Korematsu v. United States,” Densho Encyclopedia website. http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Korematsu_v._United_States/.

“Korematsu v. United States (1944),” PBS website. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/personality/landmark_korematsu.html.

Teaching resources for “Korematsu v. United States (1944): Japanese Internment, Equal Protection,” Street Law website. http://www.streetlaw.org/en/landmark/cases/korematsu_v_united_states.

Supporting Question 4- What were arguments in favor of and against the 1988 Civil Liberties Act and reparations payments to Japanese Americans?

Web Resources

 United States House of Representatives, debate over the Civil Liberties Act, Conference Report on H.R. 442 (excerpts), 1988

:United States Congress, legislation regarding an apology to and reparations for Japanese Americans, Civil Liberties Act (excerpts), August 10, 1988

Additional Resources

Debate on Japanese Reparations,” US House of Representatives, August 4, 1988, C-Span website.

Democracy Starts Here, National Archives and Records Administration.
(Students may better understand the importance of the 1988 Civil Liberties Act by viewing this video commemorating the 25th anniversary of the Civil Liberties Act.)

“Civil Liberties Act of 1988,” Densho Encyclopedia.